Structure and Toxicity of Graphene Oxide found in all of the Covid vaccines

GNews.org

billwilliam

Mr. Miles Guo’s live broadcast on August 24 revealed that all brands of Covid vaccines contain graphene oxide. Those who have received two doses of vaccines will experience side effects within 60-160 days of injection.

The vaccine is the CCP’s scheme to poison humankind.

On August 26, Mr. Guo also revealed that the West is deceived by the CCP’s scheme. Mandating vaccination of soldiers will completely destroy Western military strength.

Xi Jinping allegedly filmed an internal video to celebrate the vaccination of nearly all South Korean soldiers; Xi proclaimed that Western dominance of the world should end. The military of Russia, Iran, North Korea, and part of Turkey’s troops are not allowed to receive vaccine jabs.

The vaccine used by the People’s Liberation Army is different from the vaccine for civilians. The CCP plotted to defeat the Western democratic world through toxic vaccine warfare. Even face masks produced by Communist China contain graphene oxide as an antimicrobial, which is harmful if inhaled.

This article will explain the structure and toxicity of graphene oxide.

Structure of graphene

Graphene is a novel nanomaterial, which consists of carbon atoms orderly arranged into a two-dimensional, hexagonal, planar structure. Its thickness is generally single atom or the stacking of several layers. Graphene has the unique properties of ultra-large surface area, good conductivity, high strength, and chemical inertness. Its applications are in semiconductors, supercapacitors, biosensors, and etc. In comparison, graphene oxide is synthesized by oxidation reaction, and there are oxygen-containing functional groups on its surface, such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups. Due to the presence of hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, graphene oxide is more soluble in water and is often added in biological reagents. Most of the oxygen-containing groups can be removed through reduction reaction to generate reduced graphene oxide. [1, 2]  

Picture source: Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40097-018-0265-6

Graphene oxide production

The production of large-flake, high-quality graphene usually involves mechanical cleavage or chemical vapor deposition. One method of mechanical cleavage is to gradually peel off layers from graphite by sticky tape. These two methods are costly and difficult to mass produce.

The industrial low-cost, large-scale production of graphene is to exfoliate graphite chemically into graphene oxide, and then to produce reduced graphene oxide by reduction. Hummer’s Method is commonly used for oxidation reaction. Briefly, graphite fragments are immersed in strong acid, and then potassium permanganate is slowly added for the oxidation reaction. The layered structure in graphite is peeled off by oxidation, forming graphene oxide. Graphene oxide can be converted to reduced graphene oxide by microwave heating or chemical reduction method. [1, 2] (Caution: Hummer’s method involves dangerous reagents like strong acid and strong oxidant. Don’t try the reaction at home.)

The toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles correlates with the number of oxygen-containing groups on the surface, so toxicity is ranked as graphene oxide > reduced graphene oxide > graphene. [3] Therefore, graphene oxide used in vaccines is the most toxic of the three. Mr. Guo revealed that Communist China’s site for large-scale production of graphene oxide is in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Brazil is another major manufacturer of graphene oxide.

Toxicity of graphene oxide

Distribution of graphene oxide in the body

In 2016, a research team from Southern Medical University (formerly known as PLA’s First Military Medical University) published a review article that summarizes the distribution of graphene-family nanoparticles in the body. After intravenous injection at the dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight in mice, graphene oxide is carried throughout the body by circulation and accumulates in the lungs, liver, spleen, and bone marrow, causing inflammation, pulmonary edema, and liver damage. Graphene instilled through the trachea accumulates in the lungs, and 47% remains after four weeks. [4]  

Graphene distribution in the body is dependent on size. Graphene with an average diameter of about 340 nanometers can slowly increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, while graphene with a diameter of <100nm can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Small graphene oxide sheets (<10-30 nm in diameter) mainly accumulate in the liver and spleen, while larger graphene oxide sheets (10-800 nm) accumulate in the lungs. Large graphene sheets will accumulate in the body and cannot be removed by the kidneys. Nanoparticles of size <100 nm can penetrate the cell, and particles of size <40 nm can enter the nucleus. [4]

The graphene-family nanomaterials instilled through the trachea remain in the lungs 90 days later. High dosage of graphene oxide can form aggregates that block pulmonary blood vessels and can stimulate the release of cytokines that cause inflammation and lung fibrosis. Intravenous injection of graphene oxide at high dose (1 mg/kg body weight) can even activate platelets that result in thrombosis. [4]

Impact on reproduction

Injecting graphene into pregnant female mice leads to miscarriage at all doses. Graphene at high dose kills most pregnant mice in late gestation. Besides, graphene can hinder embryo development, such as inhibiting vascularization of the heart and blood vessels in chicken embryos. In addition, graphene can also inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acid and disrupt brain development. [4]

Toxicity in animals

Scientists from Shanghai Jiaotong University published a paper in 2011 that explained graphene oxide’s toxicity in animals. Mice randomly assigned into groups were intravenously injected with graphene oxide at concentrations of 0 mg (control group), 0.1 mg (low dose), 0.25 mg (medium dose), and 0.4 mg (high dose). After high-dose injection (0.4 mg) of graphene oxide, 4/9 of the mice died within seven days and exhibited lethargy, inactivity, and weight loss before death. Even the surviving mice displayed weakness and weight loss. [5] 

Mice in different dose groups were dissected seven days later, and optical microscope images of their lung tissue slides show inflammation of the lungs in a dose-dependent manner. Many white blood cells infiltrated into lung tissue; granulomas appeared in lung tissue; alveolar septum thickened; some alveoli even cracked. Even at low dose (0.1 mg), lung tissue damage increases with advancing time. Early signs of lesion appear in the lungs 7 days after the injection. Lung tissue slides of mice 30 days after injection display more granulomas (a kind of localized inflammation caused by macrophage infiltration). [5]

Electron microscope images of mouse lung and liver tissue slides show that graphene oxide persists in the lungs one month later—in the capillaries and the cytoplasm of cells. Graphene oxide is also trapped in liver macrophages. Because it is flake-like and non-biodegradable, graphene oxide is difficult to be removed by the kidneys. [5]

Cytotoxicity

The team from Shanghai Jiaotong University also tested the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide. Graphene oxide was added to human fibroblast cell cultures to the final concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 μg/ml. It is found that signs of toxicity appear at the concentration greater than or equal to 20 μg/ml. The cells have low survival rate, cells floating, and apoptosis. Electron microscope images show numerous black spots in the cells, indicating that graphene oxide enters the cytoplasm and gathers near organelles like the mitochondria, with a few graphene oxide in the nucleus. The amount of graphene oxide entering cells increases with time. [5]

After incubation at the concentration of 20 μg/ml for 72 hours, optical microscope images of the cells show abnormal morphology, including unclear cell boundary and apoptosis. [5]

Toxicity to genetic material

An Egyptian scientific team published an article in 2017 that describes graphene oxide’s damage to genetic material. Groups of mice were injected intraperitoneally with graphene oxide at the concentrations of 0 (control group), 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 μg/kg body weight every seven days. The mice were euthanized for dissection after 7, 28, and 56 days. Under optical microscope, bone marrow cells of the mice show chromosomal aberrations in a time- and dose-dependent manner. During cell division, DNA is tightly packed into chromosomes that are only visible in cells undergoing division. Chromosomal aberrations (such as fragmentation) demonstrate genotoxicity. [6]

In addition, the team also performed electrophoresis assays of DNA in the lung cells of the mice and discovered DNA breaks, which also prove damage to genetic material. DNA damage increases with time and dosage. [6]

Moreover, graphene oxide induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in a surge of oxidative stress in the cell. Reactive oxygen species can also damage DNA and cause mutations. This is why graphene oxide is mutagenic and carcinogenic. [6]

Mechanism of toxicity

Graphene oxide causes toxicity through a variety of mechanisms, including: 1) physical damage; 2) oxidative stress; 3) DNA damage; 4) inflammatory response; 5) mitochondrial damage; 6) stimulation of cell death. [4]

Physical damage

Graphene oxide can bind on cell membrane or surface of proteins and negatively affect their normal function. Graphene oxide binds on the surface of red blood cells, damages their cell membranes, and induces hemolysis. Furthermore, the flake-like structure of graphene oxide can insert into and cut through cell membrane like a blade.

Oxidative stress

Graphene oxide can induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that deplete natural antioxidants in cells. Oxidative stress causes extensive cellular damage, such as cell membrane damage, DNA break, protein denaturation, and damage to organelles like mitochondria. Excessive oxidative stress results in cell death.

DNA damage

In addition to oxidative stress, graphene oxide can also bind on the surface of DNA or insert between DNA base pairs, causing DNA breaks, mutation, or chromosome fragmentation. Even if large graphene oxide sheet cannot enter the cell nucleus, it can still damage the DNA during cell division when the nuclear membrane breaks down. If DNA damage occurs in reproductive cells, this can lead to infertility or health problems in the offspring.

Inflammatory response

Oxidative stress can stimulate inflammation. Graphene oxide can also induce the release of inflammatory cytokines that overstimulate the immune system, causing pulmonary edema. In addition, graphene can bind with certain surface receptor proteins, activate cell signal pathways, and eventually cause inflammation.

Mitochondrial damage

Mitochondria are organelles that engage in metabolism and produce energy chemicals (ATP) in cells. Mitochondrial damage during oxidative stress inhibits the cell’s normal ability to produce energy.

Cell death

Oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, inflammation, and activation of certain receptor proteins all lead to apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis.

CCP develops antidote

PLA experiment

During experiments in 2016, a research team from the PLA’s Third Military Medical University found that repeated exposure to graphene oxide causes oxidative stress that damages the cornea of ​​rats. Antioxidant can reverse the damage. [7]

Other experiments

Other scientists from Shanghai Jiaotong University and Tongji University published a paper in 2020. They found that autophagy inhibitors (for example chloroquine) can alleviate injury caused by graphene oxide. Administering chloroquine to mice that received graphene oxide injection significantly reduces lung injury, edema, oxidative stress, inflammation, and inflammatory cytokine level, but the damages cannot be completely restored. (Autophagy is a process by which cells degrade proteins and digest damaged organelles through lysosomes. Excessive activation of autophagy causes cell damage and death. Therefore, autophagy inhibitors can relieve tissue damage.) [8] The purpose of this article is to show the evidence that CCP scientists have experimented with antidotes to graphene oxide poisoning, but it is uncertain whether these chemicals can alleviate poisoning by vaccines.

References:

1. Priyadarsini, S. and et al. “Graphene and graphene oxide as nanomaterials for medicine and biology application.” Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry. (2018) 8: 123-137

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40097-018-0265-6

2. Moon, K. and et al. “Graphene for Ultracapacitors.” School of Materials Science & Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology. 2010 Electronic Components and Technology Conference. (2010): 1323-1328.

https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~jagar/assets/moon_ectc_2010.pdf

3. Jung, S. and et al. “Multi-endpoint, high-throughput study of nanomaterial toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.” Environmental Science and Technology. (2015); 49(4): 2477-2485

doi:10.1021/es5056462

4. Ou, L. and et al. “Toxicity of graphene-family nanoparticles: a general review of the origins and mechanisms.” Particle and Fibre Toxicology.(2016) 13:57

DOI 10.1186/s12989-016-0168-y

5. Wang, K. and et al. “Biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide.” Nanoscale Research Letters.(2011), 6: 8

doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9751-6

6. El-Yamany, N. and et al. “Graphene oxide nanosheets induced genotoxicity and pulmonary injury in mice.” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. (2017); 69(6): 383-392

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2017.03.002

7. Wu, W. and et al. “Evaluation of the toxicity of graphene oxide exposure to the eye.” Nanotoxicology. 2016 Nov; 10(9):1329-40

https://doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2016.1210692

8. Zhang, L. and et al. “Graphene oxide induces dose-dependent lung injury in rats by regulating autophagy.” Experimental and therapeutic medicine. (2021) 21:462

DOI: 10.3892/etm.2021.9893


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